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UEBERSICHT

Chapter 1
---Subdivisions of Anatomy and Physiology
---Levels of Organization
---Life Processes
---Body Functions
---Homeostasis


Chapter 1

Anatomy: the study of structure
Physiology: the study of function


SUBDIVISIONS OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Anatomy subdivisions:
Radiographic.....................use of X-rays
Embriological....................study of development from fertilized egg to adult
Histology..........................microscopic study of tissues
Cytology...........................chemical and microscopic study of the structure of cells
Pathology.........................study of structural changes associated with disease
Physiological subdivisions:
Cell physiology..................function of cells
Pathophysiology................functional changes associated with disease and aging
Exercise physiology...........changes in cell and organ functions during muscular activity
Neurophysiology................functional characteristics of nerve cells
Endocrinology...................study of hormones and how they control body functions
Cardiovascular Physiology..functions of the heart and blood vessels
Immunology......................study of body defense mechanisms
Respiratory Physiology......functions of air passageways and lungs
Renal Physiology..............functions of the kidneys
Reproductive Physiology....functions of the reproductive organs
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LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
1.Chemical Level: all atoms and molecules essential for maintaining life.
2.Cellular Level: cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism.
3.Tissue: groups of similar cells working to perform a particular function. There are four types:
Muscle, Nervous, Epithelial and Connective.
4.Organs: composed of two or more tussues having specific functions and recognizable shapes.
5.System: several related organs that have a common function (organs can be in more than one system)
6.Organisimic Level: all parts functioning to comprise the total organism.
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LIFE PROCESSES--must be carried out for human survival
1.Metabolism--sum of all chemical processes occuring in the body
Catabolism__breakdown (digestion)
Anabolism__uses energy to build the body's structure (protein synthesis)
2.Responsiveness--ability to detect and respond to changes in the enviroment --Neuros
3.Movement--whole body, individual organs, organelles
4.Growth--increase in size and complexity
5.Differentiation--the change a cell undergoes from unspecialized to specialized
Fertilized egg-->enbryo-->fetusinfant-->child-->adult-->
6.Reproduction--formation of new cells for growth, repair or to produce a new human
7.Autopsy: -Postmortem examination of body by dissection
-Purpose: 1.confirm or determine of death; 2.support findings of other tests; 3.provide
information on effect of drug usage; 4.educate healthcare student; 5.reveal
congenital defects
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BODY FUNCTIONS
1.Survival most important
2.survival depends on the body's maintainence of homeostasis
3.Homeostasis depends of the body's never ceasing activities
4.The body's functions are ultimately cell functions
5.Body functions are related to age: baby - teens -->building 20-40 -->maintaining 50-70 -->repairing
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HOMEOSTASIS-maintaining physiological limits/ the body must adjust to all changes or it ceases to live
For our bodies to survive, the composition of the surrounding fluids must be precisely maintained
at all times. Extracellular fluid (ECF) is found in spaces between cells of tissues. it is aka institial,
intercellular, or tissue fluid. Intracellular (ICF) is plasma, the fluid within cells
Homeostasis is maintained when its internal environment:
1.contains the optimum concentration of gases, nutrients, ions and water
2.is at its optimal temperature (98.6 Grad Fahrenheit or 37 Grad Celsius)
3.is at its optimal volume
When homeostasis is disturbed--illness may result. If not returned to normal death will occur.

Stress--any stimulus that creates an imbalance in the internal environment. Most are mild.
Examples: External stresses: heat, cold, loud noises, lack of O2
Internal stresses: exercise, low blood sugar levels, increase in acidity, pain
Severe Stresses: poisoning, extreme temperatures, severe infection


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